Chinese Calligraphy



Lesson 22

Resultative verbs

Resultative verbs consist of the verb itself + a resultative ending. Resultative endings are added to a verb and influence the result, the direction, the possibility or the extent of an action. If, for example, you want to express that you finished watching TV, you choose the verb 看 (watch) and the resultative ending 完 (finished). The result would be "我看完了電視." (I finished watching TV).

The verb and the resultative ending form a single unit. For this reason, the perfective particle 了 never separates the verb and the resultative ending. The perfective particle 了 is added to the end of the resultative verb.

If you want to indicate that an action did not reach a particular result, then you negate the resultative verb as a whole using 沒有 before the resultative verb, e.g. "作天的雪還沒有化完." (Yesterday's snow has not melted yet.).

If you want to indicate that an action does not reach a particular result in the present, then you negate the resultative verb by putting 不 between the verb and the resultative ending, e.g. "我看不完電視." (I don't finish watching TV).

If you want to express that the subject of your sentence is able to reach a particular result, then you add 得 between the action verb and the resultative suffix, e.g. "這本書,我今天看得完" (I can finish reading this book today).

The resultative ending 好 (hǎo)

The resultative ending 好 indicates satisfaction or completion.

好 (hǎo)

The resultative ending 懂 (dǒng)

The resultative ending 懂 indicates comprehension.

懂 (dǒng)

The resultative ending 完 (wán)

The resultative ending 完 indicates completion.

完 (wán

The resultative ending 動 (dòng)

The resultative ending 動 indicates motion.

動 (dòng)

The resultative ending 了 (liǎo)

The resultative ending 了 indicates ability or completion.

了 (liǎo)

The resultative ending 著 (zháo)

The resultative ending 著 indicates attainment.

著 (zháo)

The resultative ending 見 (jiàn)

The resultative ending 見 indicates perception.

見 (jiàn)

The resultative ending 到 (dào)

The resultative ending 到 indicates arrival or attainment.

到 (dào)

The resultative ending 下 (xià)

The resultative ending 下 indicates that you have room or the capacity for doing something.

下 (xià)

The resultative ending 起 (qǐ)

The resultative ending 起 (qǐ) indicates the ability to afford something.

起 (qǐ)

The resultative ending 出來 (chūlái)

The resultative ending 出來 (chūlái) indicates the ability to tell something by doing something.

出來 (chūlái)

The particle 得 (de) in "so...that" constructions

When the particle 得 (de) occurs before verbs or adjectives, in many cases the consequences of such situations are described in the sense of "so...that" using resultative verbs.

得 (de)

Directional verbs

Directional verbs consist of a verb indicating motion, e.g. 走 (walk), 跑 (run), 坐 (sit), 躺 (lie) etc., plus a directional ending. For example, the motion verb 躺 (lie) + the directional ending 下 (down) form the directional verb 躺下 (to lie down).

The verb and the resultative ending form a single unit. For this reason, the perfective particle 了 never separates the verb and the resultative ending. The perfective particle 了 is added to the end of the directional verb, e.g. "我躺下了." (I lay down.)

If you want to negate a sentence containing a directional verb in the past, then you negate the directional verb as a whole using 沒有 before the directional verb, e.g. "我沒躺下了." (I did not lie down).

If you want to negate a sentence containing a directional verb in the present tense, then you negate the directional verb using 不 between the motion verb and the directional ending, e.g. "我不能躺下." (I can't lie down.).

The directional suffix 下 (xià)

The directional suffix 下 (xià) indicates "down" and can be used together with motion verbs to describe a downward movement.

下 (xià)

The directional suffix 上 (shàng)

The directional suffix 上 (shàng) indicates "up" and can be used together with motion verbs to describe an upward movement.

上 (shàng)

The directional suffix 來 (lái)

The directional suffix 來 (lái) indicates movement towards the speaker.

來 (lái)

The directional suffix 走 (zǒu)

The directional suffix 走 (zǒu) indicates movement away from the speaker.

走 (zǒu)

The directional suffix 下來 (xiàlái)

The directional suffix 下來 (xiàlái) indicates a downward movement towards the speaker.

下來 (xiàlái)

The directional suffix 過來 (guòlái)

The directional suffix 過來 (guòlái) indicates a movement over towards the speaker.

過來 (guòlái)

The expression 不但...也/而且/還...

The expression 不但...也/而且/還... (bùdàn...yě/érqiě/hái) can be translated as "not only...but also" and is used to add related information.

不但...也

The expression 除了...以外

The expression 除了...以外 (chúle...yǐwài) can be translated as "besides" or "except" and is used to add additional information or an exception.

除了...以外

Saying "another one", "a different one" and "one more" in Chinese

If you want to describe that "another" or "additional" action takes place or that more of something is needed, you can use "另外" (lìngwài).

另外 (lìngwài)

If you want to say "another" or "a different" person or thing, you can use "別的" (biéde). 別的 (biéde) can be used for both "another one" and "a different one".

別的 (biéde)

As an alternative to "別的" (biéde) in the sense of "another one", you can also use 其他的 (qítāde). Besides the meaning of "another one" it can also mean "the rest" or "remaining part" of something.

其他的 (qítāde)